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We already have all the technology.

  • Solar and wind for electricity generation (possibly supported by ocean/wave energy at a later stage)
  • Electric vehicles for transport
  • Heat-pumps for domestic heating
  • Green hydrogen for industrial applications
  • Solar fuels, possibly based on direct air carbon capture, for aviation
  • Rapidly developing batteries for storage, possibly supported by mechanical storage and power-to-gas/power-to-hydrogen to power as bridging technologies

And – they are a lot cheaper:

Fossil vs Renewable Cost

Fossil fuels are no longer competitive.

Renewable electricity is cheaper to produce, and electric devices are cheaper than oil-burning engines and turbines. The main reason for this is the “renewable factor”, and efficiency:

  • The wind & the sun are for free. Fuel to produce electricity in fossil power plants is not.
  • The thermal efficiency of burning fuels is limited by the laws of physics. The maximum theoretical efficiency grade of a combustion engine is 35%. The efficiency grade of an electric motor is close to 100%.

The cost difference between renewables and fossils is not just a fraction. Or 10, 20 ,30, or even 50%. The difference is a factor of between to and three. Fossils are between 200 % and 300% more expensive than renewables.


And the best part? The new renewable and electric technologies are still getting cheaper.

“Only he who refuses to count to two

is still investing in fossil energy.”


Electricity generation cost

Comparison of renewable vs. fossil electricity generation cost ranges in 2023, measured in LCOE (levelised cost of electricity). The LCOE includes all cost – capital cost, maintenance, operation – over the life-time of the installation, but excludes all subsidies.

Renewable vs. Fossil LCOE

Data: Lazard

Solar PV and wind have been the cheapest form of electricity for a couple of years now. According to the international Energy Agency, renewable electricity is the cheapest form of energy in human history.

Electric vehicle cost & operation

EV vs gasoline car cost

Cost comparison between electric car and gasoline/diesel car for a mid-class sedan: the key cost component of EVs has been the battery. However, due to large investments in R&D and mass production, the energy density of batteries has increased while costs have decreased significantly. EVs and ICE vehicles are now on par regarding purchase price.
Because an EV does not need a big motor nor transition gear, building an EV is cheaper than a combustion-engine car. Maintenance and repair cost are also lower due to the much smaller number of moving parts within the vehicle.

Electric car vs gasoline car cost

Operating cost of an electric car vs. a gasoline car (mid-range sedan): electricity cost and gasoline cost vary highly from country to country; a fixed price therefore cannot be calculated. However, the range of cost is strongly in favour of electric cars, with the median being 7 U$/100km for EVs, and 12 U$/100km for ICE cars.
The reason for this is the much higher efficiency of an electric motor (up to 100%) vs the combustion engine (max 35%). An Ev in the mid-range calss uses 20 KWh/100km, while an ICE uses 8l of gasoline, wich equals 72 kWh.

Batteries & Storage

With the increasing use of partable electronic devices – laptop computers, mobil phones in particular, and later electric vehicles – demand for more and better batteries has increased rapidly, and so has the technology. Battery technology is currently in a steep learning curve. All relevant elctronic alternatives – electricity generation, vehicles, heating devices – have now broken through and overtaken the fossil alternatives in terms of competitiveness; they are now cheaper. Demand for batteries will grow even faster in the future. Batteries are a trillion-dollar business, and therefore attract further significant investment. Batteries will become even better and cheaper than they are now.
That is good news for the energy transition:
  • There will be sufficient and cheap battery storage capacity to run the grid on renewable energy. Even if we electrify everything.
  • Depending on government policies, that point will be reached sooner, – or later. With a global climate tax as proposed here, no later than 2035.

The only aerea that does not yet have an electric solution is aviation. Even if the battery learning curve remains steep, commercial airliners – shy of an unlikely  revolutionary breakthrough – will not be able to fly with batteries before 2045. The solution here lies in much smaller planes, and/or the mass deployment of green generated (i.e. powered by renewables) synthetic fuels (a business model for the Gulf States?).

 Battery costs and capacity

Batteries are an existential part of an energy system that is based on electricity. Battery storage capacity has increased significantely over the last 20 years, while cost have come down equally drastic.
Cost will decrease further in the coming years, while capacity and energy density are expected to increase further.
Battery cost development trends

With the increasing use of electronic devices and later electric vehicles, the need for lighter and better batteries has increased sharply, leading to increased investment in the development of battery technologies.
The cost of batteries – measured by electricity storage capacity – has dropped by more then 70% in the last ten years.

Demand for batteries is only increasing, Rapidly. It is a billion-dollar business. Not surprisingly the battery R&D investments have increased further, meaning we can expect further cost reductions. The lower cost of batteries has been one of the main drivers making the electrification of everything cheaper than burning fossils.

Battery density trends - Copy

Battery efficiency –  measured in energy density, i.e. the power saving capacity per unit –  has improved significantely, and is now in a steep learning curve.

Given the high investments in battery technology worldwide, we can expect further positive development.



  • Heat pumps work similar to a refrigerators, using temperature differences.
  •  Because a heat pump does not generate heat, it transports heat. Thanks do this process, a heat pump can transfer more heat than the energy input. In contrast, a fuel-burning heating device can achieve a maximum of 100% heat compared to the energy input (in most cases, around 80%). Compared to buring fossils, a heat-pump is between 200 and 540% more efficient.
  • Heat pumps can work both ways: they can heat – or they can cool, adding an extra incentive in times of rising temperatures.
Sales of heat pumps have more than trippled in the last 10 years, and are expected to rise further. 


Because they are cheaper in operation.

Heat pump sales